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authorColin Walters <walters@redhat.com>2015-06-04 12:15:18 -0400
committerColin Walters <walters@verbum.org>2015-06-17 12:59:36 -0400
commitea544ffc18405237ccd95d28d7f45afef49aca17 (patch)
tree1f3b11087f101e608f18a1f30fb55fb7a7465218
parent8277d89eb530db5254aed1a66cf52c11243675a8 (diff)
CVE-2015-4625: Use unpredictable cookie values, keep them secret
Tavis noted that it'd be possible with a 32 bit counter for someone to cause the cookie to wrap by creating Authentication requests in a loop. Something important to note here is that wrapping of signed integers is undefined behavior in C, so we definitely want to fix that. All counter integers used in this patch are unsigned. See the comment above `authentication_agent_generate_cookie` for details, but basically we're now using a cookie of the form: ``` <agent serial> - <agent random id> - <session serial> - <session random id> ``` Which has multiple 64 bit counters, plus unpredictable random 128 bit integer ids (effectively UUIDs, but we're not calling them that because we don't need to be globally unique. We further ensure that the cookies are not visible to other processes by changing the setuid helper to accept them over standard input. This means that an attacker would have to guess both ids. In any case, the security hole here is better fixed with the other change to bind user id (uid) of the agent with cookie lookups, making cookie guessing worthless. Nevertheless, I think it's worth doing this change too, for defense in depth. Bug: https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=90832 CVE: CVE-2015-4625 Reported-by: Tavis Ormandy <taviso@google.com> Reviewed-by: Miloslav Trma─Ź <mitr@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Colin Walters <walters@redhat.com>
-rw-r--r--configure.ac2
-rw-r--r--src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-pam.c12
-rw-r--r--src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-shadow.c12
-rw-r--r--src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.c33
-rw-r--r--src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.h2
-rw-r--r--src/polkitagent/polkitagentsession.c30
-rw-r--r--src/polkitbackend/polkitbackendinteractiveauthority.c99
7 files changed, 150 insertions, 40 deletions
diff --git a/configure.ac b/configure.ac
index d9a97bb..91cc627 100644
--- a/configure.ac
+++ b/configure.ac
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ if test "x$GCC" = "xyes"; then
changequote([,])dnl
fi
-PKG_CHECK_MODULES(GLIB, [gmodule-2.0 gio-2.0 >= 2.30.0])
+PKG_CHECK_MODULES(GLIB, [gmodule-2.0 gio-unix-2.0 >= 2.30.0])
AC_SUBST(GLIB_CFLAGS)
AC_SUBST(GLIB_LIBS)
AC_DEFINE([GLIB_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED], [GLIB_VERSION_2_30],
diff --git a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-pam.c b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-pam.c
index 937386e..19062aa 100644
--- a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-pam.c
+++ b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-pam.c
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
int rc;
const char *user_to_auth;
- const char *cookie;
+ char *cookie = NULL;
struct pam_conv pam_conversation;
pam_handle_t *pam_h;
const void *authed_user;
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
openlog ("polkit-agent-helper-1", LOG_CONS | LOG_PID, LOG_AUTHPRIV);
/* check for correct invocation */
- if (argc != 3)
+ if (!(argc == 2 || argc == 3))
{
syslog (LOG_NOTICE, "inappropriate use of helper, wrong number of arguments [uid=%d]", getuid ());
fprintf (stderr, "polkit-agent-helper-1: wrong number of arguments. This incident has been logged.\n");
@@ -105,7 +105,10 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
}
user_to_auth = argv[1];
- cookie = argv[2];
+
+ cookie = read_cookie (argc, argv);
+ if (!cookie)
+ goto error;
if (getuid () != 0)
{
@@ -203,6 +206,8 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
goto error;
}
+ free (cookie);
+
#ifdef PAH_DEBUG
fprintf (stderr, "polkit-agent-helper-1: successfully sent D-Bus message to PolicyKit daemon\n");
#endif /* PAH_DEBUG */
@@ -212,6 +217,7 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
return 0;
error:
+ free (cookie);
if (pam_h != NULL)
pam_end (pam_h, rc);
diff --git a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-shadow.c b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-shadow.c
index a4f73ac..e877915 100644
--- a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-shadow.c
+++ b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelper-shadow.c
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct spwd *shadow;
const char *user_to_auth;
- const char *cookie;
+ char *cookie = NULL;
time_t now;
/* clear the entire environment to avoid attacks with
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
openlog ("polkit-agent-helper-1", LOG_CONS | LOG_PID, LOG_AUTHPRIV);
/* check for correct invocation */
- if (argc != 3)
+ if (!(argc == 2 || argc == 3))
{
syslog (LOG_NOTICE, "inappropriate use of helper, wrong number of arguments [uid=%d]", getuid ());
fprintf (stderr, "polkit-agent-helper-1: wrong number of arguments. This incident has been logged.\n");
@@ -86,7 +86,10 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
}
user_to_auth = argv[1];
- cookie = argv[2];
+
+ cookie = read_cookie (argc, argv);
+ if (!cookie)
+ goto error;
#ifdef PAH_DEBUG
fprintf (stderr, "polkit-agent-helper-1: user to auth is '%s'.\n", user_to_auth);
@@ -153,6 +156,8 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
goto error;
}
+ free (cookie);
+
#ifdef PAH_DEBUG
fprintf (stderr, "polkit-agent-helper-1: successfully sent D-Bus message to PolicyKit daemon\n");
#endif /* PAH_DEBUG */
@@ -162,6 +167,7 @@ main (int argc, char *argv[])
return 0;
error:
+ free (cookie);
fprintf (stdout, "FAILURE\n");
flush_and_wait ();
return 1;
diff --git a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.c b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.c
index cfa77fc..e23f9f5 100644
--- a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.c
+++ b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.c
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@
#include "config.h"
#include "polkitagenthelperprivate.h"
#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
@@ -45,6 +46,38 @@ _polkit_clearenv (void)
#endif
+char *
+read_cookie (int argc, char **argv)
+{
+ /* As part of CVE-2015-4625, we started passing the cookie
+ * on standard input, to ensure it's not visible to other
+ * processes. However, to ensure that things continue
+ * to work if the setuid binary is upgraded while old
+ * agents are still running (this will be common with
+ * package managers), we support both modes.
+ */
+ if (argc == 3)
+ return strdup (argv[2]);
+ else
+ {
+ char *ret = NULL;
+ size_t n = 0;
+ ssize_t r = getline (&ret, &n, stdin);
+ if (r == -1)
+ {
+ if (!feof (stdin))
+ perror ("getline");
+ free (ret);
+ return NULL;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ g_strchomp (ret);
+ return ret;
+ }
+ }
+}
+
gboolean
send_dbus_message (const char *cookie, const char *user)
{
diff --git a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.h b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.h
index aeca2c7..547fdcc 100644
--- a/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.h
+++ b/src/polkitagent/polkitagenthelperprivate.h
@@ -38,6 +38,8 @@
int _polkit_clearenv (void);
+char *read_cookie (int argc, char **argv);
+
gboolean send_dbus_message (const char *cookie, const char *user);
void flush_and_wait ();
diff --git a/src/polkitagent/polkitagentsession.c b/src/polkitagent/polkitagentsession.c
index f014773..8b93ad0 100644
--- a/src/polkitagent/polkitagentsession.c
+++ b/src/polkitagent/polkitagentsession.c
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
+#include <gio/gunixoutputstream.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#include "polkitagentmarshal.h"
@@ -88,7 +89,7 @@ struct _PolkitAgentSession
gchar *cookie;
PolkitIdentity *identity;
- int child_stdin;
+ GOutputStream *child_stdin;
int child_stdout;
GPid child_pid;
@@ -129,7 +130,6 @@ G_DEFINE_TYPE (PolkitAgentSession, polkit_agent_session, G_TYPE_OBJECT);
static void
polkit_agent_session_init (PolkitAgentSession *session)
{
- session->child_stdin = -1;
session->child_stdout = -1;
}
@@ -395,11 +395,7 @@ kill_helper (PolkitAgentSession *session)
session->child_stdout = -1;
}
- if (session->child_stdin != -1)
- {
- g_warn_if_fail (close (session->child_stdin) == 0);
- session->child_stdin = -1;
- }
+ g_clear_object (&session->child_stdin);
session->helper_is_running = FALSE;
@@ -545,9 +541,9 @@ polkit_agent_session_response (PolkitAgentSession *session,
add_newline = (response[response_len] != '\n');
- write (session->child_stdin, response, response_len);
+ (void) g_output_stream_write_all (session->child_stdin, response, response_len, NULL, NULL, NULL);
if (add_newline)
- write (session->child_stdin, newline, 1);
+ (void) g_output_stream_write_all (session->child_stdin, newline, 1, NULL, NULL, NULL);
}
/**
@@ -567,8 +563,9 @@ polkit_agent_session_initiate (PolkitAgentSession *session)
{
uid_t uid;
GError *error;
- gchar *helper_argv[4];
+ gchar *helper_argv[3];
struct passwd *passwd;
+ int stdin_fd = -1;
g_return_if_fail (POLKIT_AGENT_IS_SESSION (session));
@@ -600,10 +597,8 @@ polkit_agent_session_initiate (PolkitAgentSession *session)
helper_argv[0] = PACKAGE_PREFIX "/lib/polkit-1/polkit-agent-helper-1";
helper_argv[1] = passwd->pw_name;
- helper_argv[2] = session->cookie;
- helper_argv[3] = NULL;
+ helper_argv[2] = NULL;
- session->child_stdin = -1;
session->child_stdout = -1;
error = NULL;
@@ -615,7 +610,7 @@ polkit_agent_session_initiate (PolkitAgentSession *session)
NULL,
NULL,
&session->child_pid,
- &session->child_stdin,
+ &stdin_fd,
&session->child_stdout,
NULL,
&error))
@@ -628,6 +623,13 @@ polkit_agent_session_initiate (PolkitAgentSession *session)
if (G_UNLIKELY (_show_debug ()))
g_print ("PolkitAgentSession: spawned helper with pid %d\n", (gint) session->child_pid);
+ session->child_stdin = (GOutputStream*)g_unix_output_stream_new (stdin_fd, TRUE);
+
+ /* Write the cookie on stdin so it can't be seen by other processes */
+ (void) g_output_stream_write_all (session->child_stdin, session->cookie, strlen (session->cookie),
+ NULL, NULL, NULL);
+ (void) g_output_stream_write_all (session->child_stdin, "\n", 1, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+
session->child_stdout_channel = g_io_channel_unix_new (session->child_stdout);
session->child_stdout_watch_source = g_io_create_watch (session->child_stdout_channel,
G_IO_IN | G_IO_ERR | G_IO_HUP);
diff --git a/src/polkitbackend/polkitbackendinteractiveauthority.c b/src/polkitbackend/polkitbackendinteractiveauthority.c
index 3f339e9..15adc6a 100644
--- a/src/polkitbackend/polkitbackendinteractiveauthority.c
+++ b/src/polkitbackend/polkitbackendinteractiveauthority.c
@@ -214,6 +214,8 @@ typedef struct
GDBusConnection *system_bus_connection;
guint name_owner_changed_signal_id;
+
+ guint64 agent_serial;
} PolkitBackendInteractiveAuthorityPrivate;
/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
@@ -439,11 +441,15 @@ struct AuthenticationAgent
volatile gint ref_count;
PolkitSubject *scope;
+ guint64 serial;
gchar *locale;
GVariant *registration_options;
gchar *object_path;
gchar *unique_system_bus_name;
+ GRand *cookie_pool;
+ gchar *cookie_prefix;
+ guint64 cookie_serial;
GDBusProxy *proxy;
@@ -1427,9 +1433,54 @@ authentication_session_cancelled_cb (GCancellable *cancellable,
authentication_session_cancel (session);
}
+/* We're not calling this a UUID, but it's basically
+ * the same thing, just not formatted that way because:
+ *
+ * - I'm too lazy to do it
+ * - If we did, people might think it was actually
+ * generated from /dev/random, which we're not doing
+ * because this value doesn't actually need to be
+ * globally unique.
+ */
+static void
+append_rand_u128_str (GString *buf,
+ GRand *pool)
+{
+ g_string_append_printf (buf, "%08x%08x%08x%08x",
+ g_rand_int (pool),
+ g_rand_int (pool),
+ g_rand_int (pool),
+ g_rand_int (pool));
+}
+
+/* A value that should be unique to the (AuthenticationAgent, AuthenticationSession)
+ * pair, and not guessable by other agents.
+ *
+ * <agent serial> - <agent uuid> - <session serial> - <session uuid>
+ *
+ * See http://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/polkit-devel/2015-June/000425.html
+ *
+ */
+static gchar *
+authentication_agent_generate_cookie (AuthenticationAgent *agent)
+{
+ GString *buf = g_string_new ("");
+
+ g_string_append (buf, agent->cookie_prefix);
+
+ g_string_append_c (buf, '-');
+ agent->cookie_serial++;
+ g_string_append_printf (buf, "%" G_GUINT64_FORMAT,
+ agent->cookie_serial);
+ g_string_append_c (buf, '-');
+ append_rand_u128_str (buf, agent->cookie_pool);
+
+ return g_string_free (buf, FALSE);
+}
+
+
static AuthenticationSession *
authentication_session_new (AuthenticationAgent *agent,
- const gchar *cookie,
PolkitSubject *subject,
PolkitIdentity *user_of_subject,
PolkitSubject *caller,
@@ -1447,7 +1498,7 @@ authentication_session_new (AuthenticationAgent *agent,
session = g_new0 (AuthenticationSession, 1);
session->agent = authentication_agent_ref (agent);
- session->cookie = g_strdup (cookie);
+ session->cookie = authentication_agent_generate_cookie (agent);
session->subject = g_object_ref (subject);
session->user_of_subject = g_object_ref (user_of_subject);
session->caller = g_object_ref (caller);
@@ -1496,16 +1547,6 @@ authentication_session_free (AuthenticationSession *session)
g_free (session);
}
-static gchar *
-authentication_agent_new_cookie (AuthenticationAgent *agent)
-{
- static gint counter = 0;
-
- /* TODO: use a more random-looking cookie */
-
- return g_strdup_printf ("cookie%d", counter++);
-}
-
static PolkitSubject *
authentication_agent_get_scope (AuthenticationAgent *agent)
{
@@ -1553,12 +1594,15 @@ authentication_agent_unref (AuthenticationAgent *agent)
g_free (agent->unique_system_bus_name);
if (agent->registration_options != NULL)
g_variant_unref (agent->registration_options);
+ g_rand_free (agent->cookie_pool);
+ g_free (agent->cookie_prefix);
g_free (agent);
}
}
static AuthenticationAgent *
-authentication_agent_new (PolkitSubject *scope,
+authentication_agent_new (guint64 serial,
+ PolkitSubject *scope,
const gchar *unique_system_bus_name,
const gchar *locale,
const gchar *object_path,
@@ -1592,6 +1636,7 @@ authentication_agent_new (PolkitSubject *scope,
agent = g_new0 (AuthenticationAgent, 1);
agent->ref_count = 1;
+ agent->serial = serial;
agent->scope = g_object_ref (scope);
agent->object_path = g_strdup (object_path);
agent->unique_system_bus_name = g_strdup (unique_system_bus_name);
@@ -1599,6 +1644,25 @@ authentication_agent_new (PolkitSubject *scope,
agent->registration_options = registration_options != NULL ? g_variant_ref (registration_options) : NULL;
agent->proxy = proxy;
+ {
+ GString *cookie_prefix = g_string_new ("");
+ GRand *agent_private_rand = g_rand_new ();
+
+ g_string_append_printf (cookie_prefix, "%" G_GUINT64_FORMAT "-", agent->serial);
+
+ /* Use a uniquely seeded PRNG to get a prefix cookie for this agent,
+ * whose sequence will not correlate with the per-authentication session
+ * cookies.
+ */
+ append_rand_u128_str (cookie_prefix, agent_private_rand);
+ g_rand_free (agent_private_rand);
+
+ agent->cookie_prefix = g_string_free (cookie_prefix, FALSE);
+
+ /* And a newly seeded pool for per-session cookies */
+ agent->cookie_pool = g_rand_new ();
+ }
+
return agent;
}
@@ -2193,7 +2257,6 @@ authentication_agent_initiate_challenge (AuthenticationAgent *agent,
{
PolkitBackendInteractiveAuthorityPrivate *priv = POLKIT_BACKEND_INTERACTIVE_AUTHORITY_GET_PRIVATE (authority);
AuthenticationSession *session;
- gchar *cookie;
GList *l;
GList *identities;
gchar *localized_message;
@@ -2215,8 +2278,6 @@ authentication_agent_initiate_challenge (AuthenticationAgent *agent,
&localized_icon_name,
&localized_details);
- cookie = authentication_agent_new_cookie (agent);
-
identities = NULL;
/* select admin user if required by the implicit authorization */
@@ -2279,7 +2340,6 @@ authentication_agent_initiate_challenge (AuthenticationAgent *agent,
user_identities = g_list_prepend (NULL, polkit_unix_user_new (0));
session = authentication_session_new (agent,
- cookie,
subject,
user_of_subject,
caller,
@@ -2335,7 +2395,6 @@ authentication_agent_initiate_challenge (AuthenticationAgent *agent,
g_list_free_full (user_identities, g_object_unref);
g_list_foreach (identities, (GFunc) g_object_unref, NULL);
g_list_free (identities);
- g_free (cookie);
g_free (localized_message);
g_free (localized_icon_name);
@@ -2482,7 +2541,9 @@ polkit_backend_interactive_authority_register_authentication_agent (PolkitBacken
goto out;
}
- agent = authentication_agent_new (subject,
+ priv->agent_serial++;
+ agent = authentication_agent_new (priv->agent_serial,
+ subject,
polkit_system_bus_name_get_name (POLKIT_SYSTEM_BUS_NAME (caller)),
locale,
object_path,