systemd System and Service Manager
CHANGES WITH 197:
* Timer units now support calendar time events in addition to
monotonic time events. That means you can now trigger a unit
based on a calendar time specification such as "Thu,Fri
2013-*-1,5 11:12:13" which refers to 11:12:13 of the first
or fifth day of any month of the year 2013, given that it is
a thursday or friday. This brings timer event support
considerably closer to cron's capabilities. For details on
the supported calendar time specification language see
* udev now supports a number of different naming policies for
network interfaces for predictable names, and a combination
of these policies is now the default. Please see this wiki
document for details:
* Auke Kok's bootchart implementation has been added to the
systemd tree. It's an optional component that can graph the
boot in quite some detail. It's one of the best bootchart
implementations around and minimal in its code and
* nss-myhostname has been integrated into the systemd source
tree. nss-myhostname guarantees that the local hostname
always stays resolvable via NSS. It has been a weak
requirement of systemd-hostnamed since a long time, and
since its code is actually trivial we decided to just
include it in systemd's source tree. It can be turned off
with a configure switch.
* The read-ahead logic is now capable of properly detecting
whether a btrfs file system is on SSD or rotating media, in
order to optimize the read-ahead scheme. Previously, it was
only capable of detecting this on traditional file systems
such as ext4.
* In udev, additional device properties are now read from the
IAB in addition to the OUI database. Also, Bluetooth company
identities are attached to the devices as well.
* In service files %U may be used as specifier that is
replaced by the configured user name of the service.
* nspawn may now be invoked without a controlling TTY. This
makes it suitable for invocation as its own service. This
may be used to set up a simple containerized server system
using only core OS tools.
* systemd and nspawn can now accept socket file descriptors
when they are started for socket activation. This enables
implementation of socket activated nspawn
containers. i.e. think about autospawning an entire OS image
when the first SSH or HTTP connection is received. We expect
that similar functionality will also be added to libvirt-lxc
* journalctl will now suppress ANSI color codes when
presenting log data.
* systemctl will no longer show control group information for
a unit if a the control group is empty anyway.
* logind can now automatically suspend/hibernate/shutdown the
system on idle.
* /etc/machine-info and hostnamed now also expose the chassis
type of the system. This can be used to determine whether
the local system is a laptop, desktop, handset or
tablet. This information may either be configured by the
user/vendor or is automatically determined from ACPI and DMI
information if possible.
* A number of PolicyKit actions are now bound together with
"imply" rules. This should simplify creating UIs because
many actions will now authenticate similar ones as well.
* Unit files learnt a new condition ConditionACPower= which
may be used to conditionalize a unit depending on whether an
AC power source is connected or not, of whether the system
is running on battery power.
* systemctl gained a new "is-failed" verb that may be used in
shell scripts and suchlike to check whether a specific unit
is in the "failed" state.
* The EnvironmentFile= setting in unit files now supports file
globbing, and can hence be used to easily read a number of
environment files at once.
* systemd will no longer detect and recognize specific
distributions. All distribution-specific #ifdeffery has been
removed, systemd is now fully generic and
distribution-agnostic. Effectively, not too much is lost as
a lot of the code is still accessible via explicit configure
switches. However, support for some distribution specific
legacy configuration file formats has been dropped. We
recommend distributions to simply adopt the configuration
files everybody else uses now and convert the old
configuration from packaging scripts. Most distributions
already did that. If that's not possible or desirable,
distributions are welcome to forward port the specific
pieces of code locally from the git history.
* When logging a message about a unit systemd will now always
log the unit name in the message meta data.
* localectl will now also discover system locale data that is
not stored in locale archives, but directly unpacked.
* logind will no longer unconditionally use framebuffer
devices as seat masters, i.e. as devices that are required
to be existing before a seat is considered preset. Instead,
it will now look for all devices that are tagged as
"seat-master" in udev. By default framebuffer devices will
be marked as such, but depending on local systems other
devices might be marked as well. This may be used to
integrate graphics cards using closed source drivers (such
as NVidia ones) more nicely into logind. Note however, that
we recommend using the open source NVidia drivers instead,
and no udev rules for the closed-source drivers will be
shipped from us upstream.
Contributions from: Adam Williamson, Alessandro Crismani, Auke
Kok, Colin Walters, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David
Herrmann, David Strauss, Dimitrios Apostolou, Eelco Dolstra,
Eric Benoit, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Henrik
Grindal Bakken, Hermann Gausterer, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann,
Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael Biebl, Michael Terry,
Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Oleg
Samarin, Pekka Lundstrom, Philip Nilsson, Ramkumar
Ramachandra, Richard Yao, Robert Millan, Sami Kerola, Shawn
Landden, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Thomas Jarosch,
Tollef Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, Zbigniew
CHANGES WITH 196:
* udev gained support for loading additional device properties
from an indexed database that is keyed by vendor/product IDs
and similar device identifiers. For the beginning this
"hwdb" is populated with data from the well-known PCI and
USB database, but also includes PNP, ACPI and OID data. In
the longer run this indexed database shall grow into
becoming the one central database for non-essential
userspace device metadata. Previously, data from the PCI/USB
database was only attached to select devices, since the
lookup was a relatively expensive operation due to O(n) time
complexity (with n being the number of entries in the
database). Since this is now O(1), we decided to add in this
data for all devices where this is available, by
default. Note that the indexed database needs to be rebuilt
when new data files are installed. To achieve this you need
to update your packaging scripts to invoke "udevadm hwdb
--update" after installation of hwdb data files. For
RPM-based distributions we introduced the new
%udev_hwdb_update macro for this purpose.
* The Journal gained support for the "Message Catalog", an
indexed database to link up additional information with
journal entries. For further details please check:
The indexed message catalog database also needs to be
rebuilt after installation of message catalog files. Use
"journalctl --update-catalog" for this. For RPM-based
distributions we introduced the %journal_catalog_update
macro for this purpose.
* The Python Journal bindings gained support for the standard
Python logging framework.
* The Journal API gained new functions for checking whether
the underlying file system of a journal file is capable of
properly reporting file change notifications, or whether
applications that want to reflect journal changes "live"
need to recheck journal files continously in appropriate
* It is now possible to set the "age" field for tmpfiles
entries to 0, indicating that files matching this entry
shall always be removed when the directories are cleaned up.
* coredumpctl gained a new "gdb" verb which invokes gdb
right-away on the selected coredump.
* There's now support for "hybrid sleep" on kernels that
support this, in addition to "suspend" and "hibernate". Use
"systemctl hybrid-sleep" to make use of this.
* logind's HandleSuspendKey= setting (and related settings)
now gained support for a new "lock" setting to simply
request the screen lock on all local sessions, instead of
actually executing a suspend or hibernation.
* systemd will now mount the EFI variables file system by
* Socket units now gained support for configuration of the
SMACK security label.
* timedatectl will now output the time of the last and next
daylight saving change.
* We dropped support for various legacy and distro-specific
concepts, such as insserv, early-boot SysV services
(i.e. those for non-standard runlevels such as 'b' or 'S')
or ArchLinux /etc/rc.conf support. We recommend the
distributions who still need support this to either continue
to maintain the necessary patches downstream, or find a
different solution. (Talk to us if you have questions!)
* Various systemd components will now bypass PolicyKit checks
for root and otherwise handle properly if PolicyKit is not
found to be around. This should fix most issues for
PolicyKit-less systems. Quite frankly this should have been
this way since day one. It is absolutely our intention to
make systemd work fine on PolicyKit-less systems, and we
consider it a bug if something doesn't work as it should if
PolicyKit is not around.
* For embedded systems it is now possible to build udev and
systemd without blkid and/or kmod support.
* "systemctl switch-root" is now capable of switching root
more than once. I.e. in addition to transitions from the
initrd to the host OS it is now possible to transition to
further OS images from the host. This is useful to implement
offline updating tools.
* Various other additions have been made to the RPM macros
shipped with systemd. Use %udev_rules_update() after
installing new udev rules files. %_udevhwdbdir,
%_udevrulesdir, %_journalcatalogdir, %_tmpfilesdir,
%_sysctldir are now available which resolve to the right
directories for packages to place various data files in.
* journalctl gained the new --full switch (in addition to
--all, to disable ellipsation for long messages.
Contributions from: Anders Olofsson, Auke Kok, Ben Boeckel,
Colin Walters, Cosimo Cecchi, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner,
Eelco Dolstra, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Kay Sievers,
Chun-Yi Lee, Lekensteyn, Lennart Poettering, Mantas Mikulėnas,
Marti Raudsepp, Martin Pitt, Mauro Dreissig, Michael Biebl,
Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miklos Vajna, Nis Martensen,
Oleksii Shevchuk, Olivier Brunel, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Thomas
Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tony
Camuso, Umut Tezduyar, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
CHANGES WITH 195:
* journalctl gained new --since= and --until= switches to
filter by time. It also now supports nice filtering for
units via --unit=/-u.
* Type=oneshot services may use ExecReload= and do the
* The journal daemon now supports time-based rotation and
vacuuming, in addition to the usual disk-space based
* The journal will now index the available field values for
each field name. This enables clients to show pretty drop
downs of available match values when filtering. The bash
completion of journalctl has been updated
accordingly. journalctl gained a new switch -F to list all
values a certain field takes in the journal database.
* More service events are now written as structured messages
to the journal, and made recognizable via message IDs.
* The timedated, localed and hostnamed mini-services which
previously only provided support for changing time, locale
and hostname settings from graphical DEs such as GNOME now
also have a minimal (but very useful) text-based client
utility each. This is probably the nicest way to changing
these settings from the command line now, especially since
it lists available options and is fully integrated with bash
* There's now a new tool "systemd-coredumpctl" to list and
extract coredumps from the journal.
* We now install a README each in /var/log/ and
/etc/rc.d/init.d explaining where the system logs and init
scripts went. This hopefully should help folks who go to
that dirs and look into the otherwise now empty void and
scratch their heads.
* When user-services are invoked (by systemd --user) the
$MANAGERPID env var is set to the PID of systemd.
* SIGRTMIN+24 when sent to a --user instance will now result
in immediate termination of systemd.
* gatewayd received numerous feature additions such as a
"follow" mode, for live syncing and filtering.
* browse.html now allows filtering and showing detailed
information on specific entries. Keyboard navigation and
mouse screen support has been added.
* gatewayd/journalctl now supports HTML5/JSON
Server-Sent-Events as output.
* The SysV init script compatibility logic will now
heuristically determine whether a script supports the
"reload" verb, and only then make this available as
* "systemctl status --follow" has been removed, use "journalctl
* journald.conf's RuntimeMinSize=, PersistentMinSize= settings
have been removed since they are hardly useful to be
* And I'd like to take the opportunity to specifically mention
Zbigniew for his great contributions. Zbigniew, you rock!
Contributions from: Andrew Eikum, Christian Hesse, Colin
Guthrie, Daniel J Walsh, Dave Reisner, Eelco Dolstra, Ferenc
Wágner, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas
Mikulėnas, Martin Mikkelsen, Martin Pitt, Michael Olbrich,
Michael Stapelberg, Michal Schmidt, Sebastian Ott, Thomas
Bächler, Umut Tezduyar, Will Woods, Wulf C. Krueger, Zbigniew
Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Сковорода Никита Андреевич
CHANGES WITH 194:
* If /etc/vconsole.conf is non-existent or empty we will no
longer load any console font or key map at boot by
default. Instead the kernel defaults will be left
intact. This is definitely the right thing to do, as no
configuration should mean no configuration, and hard-coding
font names that are different on all archs is probably a bad
idea. Also, the kernel default key map and font should be
good enough for most cases anyway, and mostly identical to
the userspace fonts/key maps we previously overloaded them
with. If distributions want to continue to default to a
non-kernel font or key map they should ship a default
/etc/vconsole.conf with the appropriate contents.
Contributions from: Colin Walters, Daniel J Walsh, Dave
Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Tollef
Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
CHANGES WITH 193:
* journalctl gained a new --cursor= switch to show entries
starting from the specified location in the journal.
* We now enforce a size limit on journal entry fields exported
with "-o json" in journalctl. Fields larger than 4K will be
assigned null. This can be turned off with --all.
* An (optional) journal gateway daemon is now available as
"systemd-journal-gatewayd.service". This service provides
access to the journal via HTTP and JSON. This functionality
will be used to implement live log synchronization in both
pull and push modes, but has various other users too, such
as easy log access for debugging of embedded devices. Right
now it is already useful to retrieve the journal via HTTP:
# systemctl start systemd-journal-gatewayd.service
# wget http://localhost:19531/entries
This will download the journal contents in a
/var/log/messages compatible format. The same as JSON:
# curl -H"Accept: application/json" http://localhost:19531/entries
This service is also accessible via a web browser where a
single static HTML5 app is served that uses the JSON logic
to enable the user to do some basic browsing of the
journal. This will be extended later on. Here's an example
screenshot of this app in its current state:
Contributions from: Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Robert
Milasan, Tom Gundersen
CHANGES WITH 192:
* The bash completion logic is now available for journalctl
* We don't mount the "cpuset" controller anymore together with
"cpu" and "cpuacct", as "cpuset" groups generally cannot be
started if no parameters are assigned to it. "cpuset" hence
broke code that assumed it it could create "cpu" groups and
just start them.
* journalctl -f will now subscribe to terminal size changes,
and line break accordingly.
Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Lukas Nykrynm, Mirco Tischler, Václav Pavlín
CHANGES WITH 191:
* nspawn will now create a symlink /etc/localtime in the
container environment, copying the host's timezone
setting. Previously this has been done via a bind mount, but
since symlinks cannot be bind mounted this has now been
changed to create/update the appropriate symlink.
* journalctl -n's line number argument is now optional, and
will default to 10 if omitted.
* journald will now log the maximum size the journal files may
take up on disk. This is particularly useful if the default
built-in logic of determining this parameter from the file
system size is used. Use "systemctl status
systemd-journald.service" to see this information.
* The multi-seat X wrapper tool has been stripped down. As X
is now capable of enumerating graphics devices via udev in a
seat-aware way the wrapper is not strictly necessary
anymore. A stripped down temporary stop-gap is still shipped
until the upstream display managers have been updated to
fully support the new X logic. Expect this wrapper to be
removed entirely in one of the next releases.
* HandleSleepKey= in logind.conf has been split up into
HandleSuspendKey= and HandleHibernateKey=. The old setting
is not available anymore. X11 and the kernel are
distuingishing between these keys and we should too. This
also means the inhibition lock for these keys has been split
Contributions from: Dave Airlie, Eelco Dolstra, Lennart
Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Václav Pavlín
CHANGES WITH 190:
* Whenever a unit changes state we'll now log this to the
journal and show along the unit's own log output in
* ConditionPathIsMountPoint= can now properly detect bind
mount points too. (Previously, a bind mount of one file
system to another place in the same file system could not be
detected as mount, since they shared struct stat's st_dev
* We will now mount the cgroup controllers cpu, cpuacct,
cpuset and the controllers net_cls, net_prio together by
* nspawn containers will now have a virtualized boot
ID. (i.e. /proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id is now mounted
over with a randomized ID at container initialization). This
has the effect of making "journalctl -b" do the right thing
in a container.
* The JSON output journal serialization has been updated not
to generate "endless" list objects anymore, but rather one
JSON object per line. This is more in line how most JSON
parsers expect JSON objects. The new output mode
"json-pretty" has been added to provide similar output, but
neatly aligned for readability by humans.
* We dropped all explicit sync() invocations in the shutdown
code. The kernel does this implicitly anyway in the kernel
reboot() syscall. halt(8)'s -n option is now a compatibility
* We now support virtualized reboot() in containers, as
supported by newer kernels. We will fall back to exit() if
CAP_SYS_REBOOT is not available to the container. Also,
nspawn makes use of this now and will actually reboot the
container if the containerized OS asks for that.
* journalctl will only show local log output by default
now. Use --merge (-m) to show remote log output, too.
* libsystemd-journal gained the new sd_journal_get_usage()
call to determine the current disk usage of all journal
files. This is exposed in the new "journalctl --disk-usage"
* journald gained a new configuration setting SplitMode= in
journald.conf which may be used to control how user journals
are split off. See journald.conf(5) for details.
* A new condition type ConditionFileNotEmpty= has been added.
* tmpfiles' "w" lines now support file globbing, to write
multiple files at once.
* We added Python bindings for the journal submission
APIs. More Python APIs for a number of selected APIs will
likely follow. Note that we intend to add native bindings
only for the Python language, as we consider it common
enough to deserve bindings shipped within systemd. There are
various projects outside of systemd that provide bindings
for languages such as PHP or Lua.
* Many conditions will now resolve specifiers such as %i. In
addition, PathChanged= and related directives of .path units
now support specifiers as well.
* There's now a new RPM macro definition for the system preset
* journald will now warn if it can't foward a message to the
syslog daemon because it's socket is full.
* timedated will no longer write or process /etc/timezone,
except on Debian. As we do not support late mounted /usr
anymore /etc/localtime always being a symlink is now safe,
and hence the information in /etc/timezone is not necessary
* logind will now always reserve one VT for a text getty (VT6
by default). Previously if more than 6 X sessions where
started they took up all the VTs with auto-spawned gettys,
so that no text gettys were available anymore.
* udev will now automatically inform the btrfs kernel logic
about btrfs RAID components showing up. This should make
simple hotplug based btrfs RAID assembly work.
* PID 1 will now increase its RLIMIT_NOFILE to 64K by default
(but not for its children which will stay at the kernel
default). This should allow setups with a lot more listening
* systemd will now always pass the configured timezone to the
kernel at boot. timedated will do the same when the timezone
* logind's inhibition logic has been updated. By default,
logind will now handle the lid switch, the power and sleep
keys all the time, even in graphical sessions. If DEs want
to handle these events on their own they should take the new
handle-power-key, handle-sleep-key and handle-lid-switch
inhibitors during their runtime. A simple way to achiveve
that is to invoke the DE wrapped in an invocation of:
systemd-inhibit --what=handle-power-key:handle-sleep-key:handle-lid-switch ...
* Access to unit operations is now checked via SELinux taking
the unit file label and client process label into account.
* systemd will now notify the administrator in the journal
when he over-mounts a non-empty directory.
* There are new specifiers that are resolved in unit files,
for the host name (%H), the machine ID (%m) and the boot ID
Contributions from: Allin Cottrell, Auke Kok, Brandon Philips,
Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters, Daniel J Walsh, Dave Reisner,
Eelco Dolstra, Jan Engelhardt, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas,
Martin Pitt, Matthias Clasen, Michael Olbrich, Pierre Schmitz,
Shawn Landden, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen,
Václav Pavlín, Yin Kangkai, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
CHANGES WITH 189:
* Support for reading structured kernel messages from
/dev/kmsg has now been added and is enabled by default.
* Support for reading kernel messages from /proc/kmsg has now
been removed. If you want kernel messages in the journal
make sure to run a recent kernel (>= 3.5) that supports
reading structured messages from /dev/kmsg (see
above). /proc/kmsg is now exclusive property of classic
syslog daemons again.
* The libudev API gained the new
* The logic for file system namespace (ReadOnlyDirectory=,
ReadWriteDirectoy=, PrivateTmp=) has been reworked not to
require pivot_root() anymore. This means fewer temporary
directories are created below /tmp for this feature.
* nspawn containers will now see and receive all submounts
made on the host OS below the root file system of the
* Forward Secure Sealing is now supported for Journal files,
which provide cryptographical sealing of journal files so
that attackers cannot alter log history anymore without this
being detectable. Lennart will soon post a blog story about
this explaining it in more detail.
* There are two new service settings RestartPreventExitStatus=
and SuccessExitStatus= which allow configuration of exit
status (exit code or signal) which will be excepted from the
restart logic, resp. consider successful.
* journalctl gained the new --verify switch that can be used
to check the integrity of the structure of journal files and
(if Forward Secure Sealing is enabled) the contents of
* nspawn containers will now be run with /dev/stdin, /dev/fd/
and similar symlinks pre-created. This makes running shells
as container init process a lot more fun.
* The fstab support can now handle PARTUUID= and PARTLABEL=
* A new ConditionHost= condition has been added to match
against the hostname (with globs) and machine ID. This is
useful for clusters where a single OS image is used to
provision a large number of hosts which shall run slightly
different sets of services.
* Services which hit the restart limit will now be placed in a
Contributions from: Bertram Poettering, Dave Reisner, Huang
Hang, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Martin
Pitt, Simon Peeters, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
CHANGES WITH 188:
* When running in --user mode systemd will now become a
subreaper (PR_SET_CHILD_SUBREAPER). This should make the ps
tree a lot more organized.
* A new PartOf= unit dependency type has been introduced that
may be used to group services in a natural way.
* "systemctl enable" may now be used to enable instances of
* journalctl now prints error log levels in red, and
warning/notice log levels in bright white. It also supports
filtering by log level now.
* cgtop gained a new -n switch (similar to top), to configure
the maximum number of iterations to run for. It also gained
-b, to run in batch mode (accepting no input).
* The suffix ".service" may now be ommited on most systemctl
command lines involving service unit names.
* There's a new bus call in logind to lock all sessions, as
well as a loginctl verb for it "lock-sessions".
* libsystemd-logind.so gained a new call sd_journal_perror()
that works similar to libc perror() but logs to the journal
and encodes structured information about the error number.
* /etc/crypttab entries now understand the new keyfile-size=
* shutdown(8) now can send a (configurable) wall message when
a shutdown is cancelled.
* The mount propagation mode for the root file system will now
default to "shared", which is useful to make containers work
nicely out-of-the-box so that they receive new mounts from
the host. This can be undone locally by running "mount
--make-rprivate /" if needed.
* The prefdm.service file has been removed. Distributions
should maintain this unit downstream if they intend to keep
it around. However, we recommend writing normal unit files
for display managers instead.
* Since systemd is a crucial part of the OS we will now
default to a number of compiler switches that improve
security (hardening) such as read-only relocations, stack
protection, and suchlike.
* The TimeoutSec= setting for services is now split into
TimeoutStartSec= and TimeoutStopSec= to allow configuration
of individual time outs for the start and the stop phase of
Contributions from: Artur Zaprzala, Arvydas Sidorenko, Auke
Kok, Bryan Kadzban, Dave Reisner, David Strauss, Harald Hoyer,
Jim Meyering, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Mantas
Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Peter
Alfredsen, Shawn Landden, Simon Peeters, Terence Honles, Tom
Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
CHANGES WITH 187:
* The journal and id128 C APIs are now fully documented as man
* Extra safety checks have been added when transitioning from
the initial RAM disk to the main system to avoid accidental
* /etc/crypttab entries now understand the new keyfile-offset=
* systemctl -t can now be used to filter by unit load state.
* The journal C API gained the new sd_journal_wait() call to
make writing synchronous journal clients easier.
* journalctl gained the new -D switch to show journals from a
* journalctl now displays a special marker between log
messages of two different boots.
* The journal is now explicitly flushed to /var via a service
systemd-journal-flush.service, rather than implicitly simply
by seeing /var/log/journal to be writable.
* journalctl (and the journal C APIs) can now match for much
more complex expressions, with alternatives and
* When transitioning from the initial RAM disk to the main
system we will now kill all processes in a killing spree to
ensure no processes stay around by accident.
* Three new specifiers may be used in unit files: %u, %h, %s
resolve to the user name, user home directory resp. user
shell. This is useful for running systemd user instances.
* We now automatically rotate journal files if their data
object hash table gets a fill level > 75%. We also size the
hash table based on the configured maximum file size. This
together should lower hash collisions drastically and thus
speed things up a bit.
* journalctl gained the new "--header" switch to introspect
header data of journal files.
* A new setting SystemCallFilters= has been added to services
which may be used to apply blacklists or whitelists to
system calls. This is based on SECCOMP Mode 2 of Linux 3.5.
* nspawn gained a new --link-journal= switch (and quicker: -j)
to link the container journal with the host. This makes it
very easy to centralize log viewing on the host for all
guests while still keeping the journal files separated.
* Many bugfixes and optimizations
Contributions from: Auke Kok, Eelco Dolstra, Harald Hoyer, Kay
Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Malte Starostik, Paul Menzel, Rex
Tsai, Shawn Landden, Tom Gundersen, Ville Skyttä, Zbigniew
CHANGES WITH 186:
* Several tools now understand kernel command line arguments,
which are only read when run in an initial RAM disk. They
usually follow closely their normal counterparts, but are
prefixed with rd.
* There's a new tool to analyze the readahead files that are
automatically generated at boot. Use:
/usr/lib/systemd/systemd-readahead analyze /.readahead
* We now provide an early debug shell on tty9 if this enabled. Use:
systemctl enable debug-shell.service
* All plymouth related units have been moved into the Plymouth
package. Please make sure to upgrade your Plymouth version
* systemd-tmpfiles now supports getting passed the basename of
a configuration file only, in which case it will look for it
in all appropriate directories automatically.
* udevadm info now takes a /dev or /sys path as argument, and
does the right thing. Example:
udevadm info /dev/sda
udevadm info /sys/class/block/sda
* systemctl now prints a warning if a unit is stopped but a
unit that might trigger it continues to run. Example: a
service is stopped but the socket that activates it is left
* "systemctl status" will now mention if the log output was
shortened due to rotation since a service has been started.
* The journal API now exposes functions to determine the
"cutoff" times due to rotation.
* journald now understands SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 for triggering
immediately flushing of runtime logs to /var if possible,
resp. for triggering immediate rotation of the journal
* It is now considered an error if a service is attempted to
be stopped that is not loaded.
* XDG_RUNTIME_DIR now uses numeric UIDs instead of usernames.
* systemd-analyze now supports Python 3
* tmpfiles now supports cleaning up directories via aging
where the first level dirs are always kept around but
directories beneath it automatically aged. This is enabled
by prefixing the age field with '~'.
* Seat objects now expose CanGraphical, CanTTY properties
which is required to deal with very fast bootups where the
display manager might be running before the graphics drivers
* Seat objects now expose a State property.
* We now include RPM macros for service enabling/disabling
based on the preset logic. We recommend RPM based
distributions to make use of these macros if possible. This
makes it simpler to reuse RPM spec files across
* We now make sure that the collected systemd unit name is
always valid when services log to the journal via
* There's a new man page kernel-command-line(7) detailing all
command line options we understand.
* The fstab generator may now be disabled at boot by passing
fstab=0 on the kernel command line.
* A new kernel command line option modules-load= is now understood
to load a specific kernel module statically, early at boot.
* Unit names specified on the systemctl command line are now
automatically escaped as needed. Also, if file system or
device paths are specified they are automatically turned
into the appropriate mount or device unit names. Example:
systemctl status /home
systemctl status /dev/sda
* The SysVConsole= configuration option has been removed from
* The SysV search path is no longer exported on the D-Bus
* The Names= option is been removed from unit file parsing.
* There's a new man page bootup(7) detailing the boot process.
* Every unit and every generator we ship with systemd now
comes with full documentation. The self-explanatory boot is
* A couple of services gained "systemd-" prefixes in their
name if they wrap systemd code, rather than only external
code. Among them fsck@.service which is now
* The HaveWatchdog property has been removed from the D-Bus
* systemd.confirm_spawn= on the kernel command line should now
* There's a new man page crypttab(5) which details all options
we actually understand.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --capability= switch to pass
additional capabilities to the container.
* timedated will now read known NTP implementation unit names
systemd-timedated-ntp.target has been removed.
* journalctl gained a new switch "-b" that lists log data of
the current boot only.
* The notify socket is in the abstract namespace again, in
order to support daemons which chroot() at start-up.
* There is a new Storage= configuration option for journald
which allows configuration of where log data should go. This
also provides a way to disable journal logging entirely, so
that data collected is only forwarded to the console, the
kernel log buffer or another syslog implementation.
* Many bugfixes and optimizations
Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Guthrie, Dave Reisner,
David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
Lukas Nykryn, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Paul Menzel,
Shawn Landden, Tom Gundersen
CHANGES WITH 185:
* "systemctl help <unit>" now shows the man page if one is
* Several new man pages have been added.
* MaxLevelStore=, MaxLevelSyslog=, MaxLevelKMsg=,
MaxLevelConsole= can now be specified in
journald.conf. These options allow reducing the amount of
data stored on disk or forwarded by the log level.
* TimerSlackNSec= can now be specified in system.conf for
PID1. This allows system-wide power savings.
Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lauri Kasanen,
Lennart Poettering, Malte Starostik, Marc-Antoine Perennou,
CHANGES WITH 184:
* logind is now capable of (optionally) handling power and
sleep keys as well as the lid switch.
* journalctl now understands the syntax "journalctl
/usr/bin/avahi-daemon" to get all log output of a specific
* CapabilityBoundingSet= in system.conf now also influences
the capability bound set of usermode helpers of the kernel.
Contributions from: Daniel Drake, Daniel J. Walsh, Gert
Michael Kulyk, Harald Hoyer, Jean Delvare, Kay Sievers,
Lennart Poettering, Matthew Garrett, Matthias Clasen, Paul
Menzel, Shawn Landden, Tero Roponen, Tom Gundersen
CHANGES WITH 183:
* Note that we skipped 139 releases here in order to set the
new version to something that is greater than both udev's
and systemd's most recent version number.
* udev: all udev sources are merged into the systemd source tree now.
All future udev development will happen in the systemd tree. It
is still fully supported to use the udev daemon and tools without
systemd running, like in initramfs or other init systems. Building
udev though, will require the *build* of the systemd tree, but
udev can be properly *run* without systemd.
* udev: /lib/udev/devices/ are not read anymore; systemd-tmpfiles
should be used to create dead device nodes as workarounds for broken
* udev: RUN+="socket:..." and udev_monitor_new_from_socket() is
no longer supported. udev_monitor_new_from_netlink() needs to be
used to subscribe to events.
* udev: when udevd is started by systemd, processes which are left
behind by forking them off of udev rules, are unconditionally cleaned
up and killed now after the event handling has finished. Services or
daemons must be started as systemd services. Services can be
pulled-in by udev to get started, but they can no longer be directly
forked by udev rules.
* udev: the daemon binary is called systemd-udevd now and installed
in /usr/lib/systemd/. Standalone builds or non-systemd systems need
to adapt to that, create symlink, or rename the binary after building
* libudev no longer provides these symbols:
The versions number was bumped and symbol versioning introduced.
* systemd-loginctl and systemd-journalctl have been renamed
to loginctl and journalctl to match systemctl.
* The config files: /etc/systemd/systemd-logind.conf and
/etc/systemd/systemd-journald.conf have been renamed to
logind.conf and journald.conf. Package updates should rename
the files to the new names on upgrade.
* For almost all files the license is now LGPL2.1+, changed
from the previous GPL2.0+. Exceptions are some minor stuff
of udev (which will be changed to LGPL2.1 eventually, too),
and the MIT licensed sd-daemon.[ch] library that is suitable
to be used as drop-in files.
* systemd and logind now handle system sleep states, in
particular suspending and hibernating.
* logind now implements a sleep/shutdown/idle inhibiting logic
suitable for a variety of uses. Soonishly Lennart will blog
about this in more detail.
* var-run.mount and var-lock.mount are no longer provided
(which prevously bind mounted these directories to their new
places). Distributions which have not converted these
directories to symlinks should consider stealing these files
from git history and add them downstream.
* We introduced the Documentation= field for units and added
this to all our shipped units. This is useful to make it
easier to explore the boot and the purpose of the various
* All smaller setup units (such as
systemd-vconsole-setup.service) now detect properly if they
are run in a container and are skipped when
appropriate. This guarantees an entirely noise-free boot in
Linux container environments such as systemd-nspawn.
* A framework for implementing offline system updates is now
integrated, for details see:
* A new service type Type=idle is available now which helps us
avoiding ugly interleaving of getty output and boot status
* There's now a system-wide CapabilityBoundingSet= option to
globally reduce the set of capabilities for the
system. This is useful to drop CAP_SYS_MKNOD, CAP_SYS_RAWIO,
CAP_NET_RAW, CAP_SYS_MODULE, CAP_SYS_TIME, CAP_SYS_PTRACE or
even CAP_NET_ADMIN system-wide for secure systems.
* There are now system-wide DefaultLimitXXX= options to
globally change the defaults of the various resource limits
for all units started by PID 1.
* Harald Hoyer's systemd test suite has been integrated into
systemd which allows easy testing of systemd builds in qemu
and nspawn. (This is really awesome! Ask us for details!)
* The fstab parser is now implemented as generator, not inside
of PID 1 anymore.
* systemctl will now warn you if .mount units generated from
/etc/fstab are out of date due to changes in fstab that
haven't been read by systemd yet.
* systemd is now suitable for usage in initrds. Dracut has
already been updated to make use of this. With this in place
initrds get a slight bit faster but primarily are much
easier to introspect and debug since "systemctl status" in
the host system can be used to introspect initrd services,
and the journal from the initrd is kept around too.
* systemd-delta has been added, a tool to explore differences
between user/admin configuration and vendor defaults.
* PrivateTmp= now affects both /tmp and /var/tmp.
* Boot time status messages are now much prettier and feature
proper english language. Booting up systemd has never been
* Read-ahead pack files now include the inode number of all
files to pre-cache. When the inode changes the pre-caching
is not attempted. This should be nicer to deal with updated
packages which might result in changes of read-ahead
* We now temporaritly lower the kernel's read_ahead_kb variable
when collecting read-ahead data to ensure the kernel's
built-in read-ahead does not add noise to our measurements
of necessary blocks to pre-cache.
* There's now RequiresMountsFor= to add automatic dependencies
for all mounts necessary for a specific file system path.
* MountAuto= and SwapAuto= have been removed from
system.conf. Mounting file systems at boot has to take place
in systemd now.
* nspawn now learned a new switch --uuid= to set the machine
ID on the command line.
* nspawn now learned the -b switch to automatically search
for an init system.
* vt102 is now the default TERM for serial TTYs, upgraded from
* systemd-logind now works on VT-less systems.
* The build tree has been reorganized. The individual
components now have directories of their own.
* A new condition type ConditionPathIsReadWrite= is now available.
* nspawn learned the new -C switch to create cgroups for the
container in other hierarchies.
* We now have support for hardware watchdogs, configurable in
* The scheduled shutdown logic now has a public API.
* We now mount /tmp as tmpfs by default, but this can be
masked and /etc/fstab can override it.
* Since udisks doesn't make use of /media anymore we are not
mounting a tmpfs on it anymore.
* journalctl gained a new --local switch to only interleave
locally generated journal files.
* We can now load the IMA policy at boot automatically.
* The GTK tools have been split off into a systemd-ui.
Contributions from: Andreas Schwab, Auke Kok, Ayan George,
Colin Guthrie, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Ward, Elan
Ruusamäe, Frederic Crozat, Gergely Nagy, Guillermo Vidal,
Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer, Javier Jardón, Kay Sievers,
Lennart Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Léo Gillot-Lamure,
Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Maxim
A. Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michal
Schmidt, Nis Martensen, Patrick McCarty, Roberto Sassu, Shawn
Landden, Sjoerd Simons, Sven Anders, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom
CHANGES WITH 44:
* This is mostly a bugfix release
* Support optional initialization of the machine ID from the
KVM or container configured UUID.
* Support immediate reboots with "systemctl reboot -ff"
* Show /etc/os-release data in systemd-analyze output
* Many bugfixes for the journal, including endianess fixes and
ensuring that disk space enforcement works
* sd-login.h is C++ comptaible again
* Extend the /etc/os-release format on request of the Debian
* We now refuse non-UTF8 strings used in various configuration
and unit files. This is done to ensure we don't pass invalid
data over D-Bus or expose it elsewhere.
* Register Mimo USB Screens as suitable for automatic seat
* Read SELinux client context from journal clients in a race
* Reorder configuration file lookup order. /etc now always
overrides /run in order to allow the administrator to always
and unconditionally override vendor supplied or
automatically generated data.
* The various user visible bits of the journal now have man
pages. We still lack man pages for the journal API calls
* We now ship all man pages in HTML format again in the
Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Dirk Eibach, Frederic
Crozat, Harald Hoyer, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Marti
Raudsepp, Michal Schmidt, Shawn Landden, Tero Roponen, Thierry
CHANGES WITH 43:
* This is mostly a bugfix release
* systems lacking /etc/os-release are no longer supported.
* Various functionality updates to libsystemd-login.so
* Track class of PAM logins to distuingish greeters from
normal user logins.
Contributions from: Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael
CHANGES WITH 42:
* This is an important bugfix release for v41.
* Building man pages is now optional which should be useful
for those building systemd from git but unwilling to install
* Watchdog support for supervising services is now usable. In
a future release support for hardware watchdogs
(i.e. /dev/watchdog) will be added building on this.
* Service start rate limiting is now configurable and can be
turned off per service. When a start rate limit is hit a
reboot can automatically be triggered.
* New CanReboot(), CanPowerOff() bus calls in systemd-logind.
Contributions from: Benjamin Franzke, Bill Nottingham,
Frederic Crozat, Lennart Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal
Schmidt, Michał Górny, Piotr Drąg
CHANGES WITH 41:
* The systemd binary is installed /usr/lib/systemd/systemd now;
An existing /sbin/init symlink needs to be adapted with the
* The code that loads kernel modules has been ported to invoke
libkmod directly, instead of modprobe. This means we do not
support systems with module-init-tools anymore.
* Watchdog support is now already useful, but still not
* A new kernel command line option systemd.setenv= is
understood to set system wide environment variables
dynamically at boot.
* We now limit the set of capabilities of systemd-journald.
* We now set SIGPIPE to ignore by default, since it only is
useful in shell pipelines, and has little use in general
code. This can be disabled with IgnoreSIPIPE=no in unit
Contributions from: Benjamin Franzke, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Tom Gundersen,
CHANGES WITH 40:
* This is mostly a bugfix release
* We now expose the reason why a service failed in the
"Result" D-Bus property.
* Rudimentary service watchdog support (will be completed over
the next few releases.)
* When systemd forks off in order execute some service we will
now immediately changes its argv to reflect which process
it will execute. This is useful to minimize the time window
with a generic argv, which makes bootcharts more useful
Contributions from: Alvaro Soliverez, Chris Paulson-Ellis, Kay
Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt,
Mike Kazantsev, Ray Strode
CHANGES WITH 39:
* This is mostly a test release, but incorporates many
* New systemd-cgtop tool to show control groups by their
* Linking against libacl for ACLs is optional again. If
disabled, support tracking device access for active logins
goes becomes unavailable, and so does access to the user
journals by the respective users.
* If a group "adm" exists, journal files are automatically
owned by them, thus allow members of this group full access
to the system journal as well as all user journals.
* The journal now stores the SELinux context of the logging
client for all entries.
* Add C++ inclusion guards to all public headers
* New output mode "cat" in the journal to print only text
messages, without any meta data like date or time.
* Include tiny X server wrapper as a temporary stop-gap to
teach XOrg udev display enumeration. This is used by display
managers such as gdm, and will go away as soon as XOrg
learned native udev hotplugging for display devices.
* Add new systemd-cat tool for executing arbitrary programs
with STDERR/STDOUT connected to the journal. Can also act as
BSD logger replacement, and does so by default.
* Optionally store all locally generated coredumps in the
journal along with meta data.
* systemd-tmpfiles learnt four new commands: n, L, c, b, for
writing short strings to files (for usage for /sys), and for
creating symlinks, character and block device nodes.
* New unit file option ControlGroupPersistent= to make cgroups
persistent, following the mechanisms outlined in
* Support multiple local RTCs in a sane way
* No longer monopolize IO when replaying readahead data on
rotating disks, since we might starve non-file-system IO to
death, since fanotify() will not see accesses done by blkid,
* Don't show kernel threads in systemd-cgls anymore, unless
requested with new -k switch.
Contributions from: Dan Horák, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Michal Schmidt
CHANGES WITH 38:
* This is mostly a test release, but incorporates many
* The git repository moved to:
* First release with the journal
* The journal replaces both systemd-kmsg-syslogd and
* New sd_pid_get_unit() API call in libsystemd-logind
* Many systemadm clean-ups
* Introduce remote-fs-pre.target which is ordered before all
remote mounts and may be used to start services before all
* Added Mageia support
* Add bash completion for systemd-loginctl
* Actively monitor PID file creation for daemons which exit in
the parent process before having finished writing the PID
file in the daemon process. Daemons which do this need to be
fixed (i.e. PID file creation must have finished before the
parent exits), but we now react a bit more gracefully to them.
* Add colourful boot output, mimicking the well-known output
of existing distributions.
* New option PassCredentials= for socket units, for
compatibility with a recent kernel ABI breakage.
* /etc/rc.local is now hooked in via a generator binary, and
thus will no longer act as synchronization point during
* systemctl list-unit-files now supports --root=.
* systemd-tmpfiles now understands two new commands: z, Z for
relabelling files according to the SELinux database. This is
useful to apply SELinux labels to specific files in /sys,
among other things.
* Output of SysV services is now forwarded to both the console
and the journal by default, not only just the console.
* New man pages for all APIs from libsystemd-login.
* The build tree got reorganized and a the build system is a
lot more modular allowing embedded setups to specifically
select the components of systemd they are interested in.
* Support for Linux systems lacking the kernel VT subsystem is
* configure's --with-rootdir= got renamed to
--with-rootprefix= to follow the naming used by udev and
* Unless specified otherwise we'll now install to /usr instead
of /usr/local by default.
* Processes with '@' in argv are now excluded from the
final shut-down killing spree, following the logic explained
* All processes remaining in a service cgroup when we enter
the START or START_PRE states are now killed with
SIGKILL. That means it is no longer possible to spawn
background processes from ExecStart= lines (which was never
supported anyway, and bad style).
* New PropagateReloadTo=/PropagateReloadFrom= options to bind
reloading of units together.
Contributions from: Bill Nottingham, Daniel J. Walsh, Dave
Reisner, Dexter Morgan, Gregs Gregs, Jonathan Nieder, Kay
Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael Biebl, Michal Schmidt,
Michał Górny, Ran Benita, Thomas Jarosch, Tim Waugh, Tollef
Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek